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Extrapulmonary TB in North Eastern Nigeria: A 10-Year Retrospective Review

Background: Information on extrapulmonary TB is scarce in Nigeria despite being one of the 22 countries with highest burden of tuberculosis in the world and the most populous country in sub-Saharan Africa where the dual epidemics of TB and HIV/AIDS mutually co-exist.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the burden of extrapulmonary TB in North-eastern Nigeria.
A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a DOTS treatment centre in a tertiary hospital in North-eastern Nigeria. TB treatment registers and case records of 1240 patients were reviewed over a 10-year period.
Out of the 1240 TB cases who received treatment at the facility; 179 (14.4%) had extra-pulmonary TB. Skeletal TB and TB lymphadenitis were the predominant forms of extra-pulmonary TB in the study i.e. 51 (28.5%) and 50 (28.0%), respectively. This was closely followed by abdominal TB (38 (21.2%), tuberculous pleural effusion (23 (12.8%), miliary TB (9 (5.0%), TB meningitis (3 (1.7%) and others (5 (2.8%): viz; 1 (0.6%) each of- TB of the breast, TB of the skin, adrenal TB, genitourinary TB and TB pericarditis respectively. Only 101 (56.4%) of the study subjects had information on their HIV status; of whom 52 (51.5%) were HIV positive and 49 (48.5%) HIV negative.
Conclusion: The study has shown that extrapulmonary TB was relatively common among TB patients receiving care at the facility despite its diagnostic challenges particularly in a resource poor setting like ours.


Baba Waru Goni, Bukar Bakki, Ismaila Adamu Saidu*, Ibrahim Musa Kida, Haruna Yusuph, Ahmed Hamman Gabdo, Ballah Akawu Denue, Abubakar Yerima, Baba Jidda Umar, Mustapha Modu Gofama, Mohammed Arab Alhaji, Mohammed Ashiru Garba, Galadima Bala Gadzama

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